Surface techniques can be broadly classified into 1 contour strip mining, 2 area strip mining, 3 open-pit mining, and 4 auger mining. Contour strip mining. Contour mining is commonly practiced where a coal seam outcrops in rolling or hilly terrain.
Contour strip mining is a method of surface mining or in which bulldozers, power shovels, or stripping wheels are used to remove large chunks of earth in terraced strips in order to extract coal from a seam or series of seams on a hill or mountain. Strip mining is most often used on the plains.
domestic coal production was derived from surface mining, up from 19 percent immediately following World War II and 38 percent in 1969. The relative expansion of surface mining has occurred in all regions of the country, but has been most pronounced in the West. Roughly 90 percent of all western coal is strip-mined and approximately 65 percent ...
Mar 12, 2017 Surface or strip mining damages and pollutes ecosystems to a great degree. This is because by definition the process of strip mining involves striping away trees, plants and topsoil so that the coal can be accessed underneath. This means that surface mining destroys mountain tops, landscapes, forests and wildlife habitats.
surface coal mining. . 1 contour strip mining, 2 area strip mining, 3 open-pit mining, and 4 auger mining.
strip mining. 2.1 Contour Stripping Coal seams and associated overburden can outcrop on the edges of hills and mountains. Figure 3 shows a cross-section of a typical contour mine plan. Contour surface mining takes advantage of the low strip ratio coal reserves adjacent to the outcrop. Contour mining equipment includes a drill, loader ...
Once referred to as strip mining, these surface methods are now generally known as surface mining. Surface mines, open pit mines, and quarries differ in important ways. Surface mines are developed to mine a material often coal which lies in a narrow bed relatively close to the surface. The bed of material can be removed and the surface ...
Mary McMahon Strip mining is done layers where the mining operations go slighter deeper with each pass. Strip mining is a type of surface mining which involves the removal of a thin layer of material known as an overburden to access buried deposits of useful minerals.This type of mining is only effective in areas where mineral deposits are very close to the surface, making it feasible to ...
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Surface Mining Strip, Open Pit, Mountain top Removal is used when coal is near the surface. Soil and rock overlying the deposit are removed to retrieve the deposit. Deep mining underground drills tunnels into the earth for extraction.
Haul truck-related fatal accidents in surface coal mining in West Virginia source of photos MSHA 2013. 108 M. Zhang et al. Safety Science 65 2014 106117. Fig. 4.
Dec 30, 2016 Underground mining is used when the coal deposit lies deep below the surface of the earth. When developing an underground mine, miners first must dig tunnels deep into the earth near the place where the coal is located. Depending on where the coal seam is in relation to the surface, tunnels may be vertical, horizontal, or sloping.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit the overburden are removed.It is the opposite of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral removed through shafts or tunnels.. Surface mining began in the mid-sixteenth century 1 ...
Coal Surface Mining, Contour Mining.Coal Contour Surface Strip Mining.The Contour or Bench method of surface or strip mining is usually associated with coal, where a seam or multiple seams are located at a certain elevation or elevations through a mountain or hill.
Andrew P. Schissler, in Encyclopedia of Energy, 2004 2.3 Strip Mining. Strip mining is employed in coal reserves where the overburden is removed in rectangular blocks in plan view called pits or strips. The pits are parallel and adjacent to each other. Strip mining is fundamentally different from contour or area mining on how the overburden is displaced, called spoil handling.
Surface mining techniques are categorized as either strip, open pit, or mountaintop removal Strip mining is a method used on flat terrain and involves removing soil or rock above a layer of coal, exposing the coal seam for mining One type of strip mining is contour mining, where extraction activities occur on a hillside.
The most economical method of extracting coal depends upon the depth and the quality of the coal seams. Coals are mined both from surface and underground. Contour mining is associated with coal. This bed of coal is located at an elevation in a mountain range or any other hilly area. It is a method of strip or surface mining.
Jul 07, 2015 Types of surface mining techniques include contour strip, area, open pit, and mountaintop removal. In mountaintop removal, entire coal seams running through the upper portion of a mountain are mined by removing all of the overburden rock or soil overlying a mineral deposit, creating a level plateau or gently rolling contour.
coal countur surface strip mining - k-consultingcoza. coal countur surface strip mining - hotelsignaturecoin Contour Strip Mining - RitchieWiki Contour strip mining is a method of surface mining or in which bulldozers, power shovels, or stripping wheels are used to remove large chunks of earth in terraced .
Jan 17, 2021 The Strip Mining Method. All surface or strip mining initially eradicates the vegetation, rock sediment, and soil spread over the surface to uncover and remove coal from an underground mineral seam or coal deposit. I should also mention, phosphate mining operations are very similar to coal mining operations.
Machineries with bucket wheel, trucks are used to excavate the coal . The open pit or surface mining uses the land only for the temporary use, later rehabilitations of the lands are done after the extraction of the coal. The surface techniques can be classified into contour strip mining, area strip mining, open pit mining and auger mining.
Block-cut method Controlled placement of spoil, steps ht 5, and 6. Auger Mining Auger mining Figure 50 is usually associated with contour strip mining. It is common practice to recover additional tonnage after the coaloverburden ratio has become too small to render further contour strip mining economical.
Mar 23, 2021 Strip mining Strip mining is mining a linear theme by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock. The overburden. It is famous for mining coal, lignite, and brown coal. Strip mining is only practical when the miners excavate the ore body relatively near the surface. There are two forms of strip mining, area stripping, and contour ...
Type of surface mining used where the terrain is flat. ... The process is repeated over the entire site. Contour Strip Mining. Form of surface mining used on hilly or mountainous terrain. A power shovel cuts a series of terraces into the side of a hill. An earthmover removes the overburden, and a power shovel extracts the coal, with the ...
Andrea Cross Strip mining is used to recover resources that are close to the surface. Strip mining is a form of surface mining that is usually employed for the recovery of materials such as coal and tar sand, which are relatively near the surface of the earth. Surface vegetation, soil, and rocks are removed in strips, often in conjunction with controlled explosions, to make removal more efficient.
articleosti5294341, title Contour coal mining overburden as solid waste and its impact on environmental quality, author Minear, R A and Tschantz, B A, abstractNote An overview has been presented in an attempt to highlight some of the traditional problems of coal mining with specific focus on contour mining in mountainous regions.
Auger mining, method for recovering coal by boring into a coal seam at the base of strata exposed by excavation. Normally one of the lowest-cost techniques of mining, it is limited to horizontal or slightly pitched seams that have been exposed by geologic erosion.Augering is usually associated with contour strip-mining, recovering coal for a limited depth beyond the point where stripping ...
STRIP MINING OF COAL A FEDERAL RESPONSE TO STATE LEGISLATION. There are three methods of surface or strip mining, each developed for a particular type of landscape, area stripping, contour stripping and auger stripping. 2 . During the past thirty years, the amount of coal pro-duced by strip mining has quadrupled.
This section describes the five main types of surface coal mining techniques area mining, open pit mining, contour mining, auger mining, and mountaintop removal. Underground mining is also considered in this section. Terrain, economics, and custom generally dictate which technique an operator chooses.. All surface or strip mining first removes the overlying vegetation, soil and underground ...
Strip mining is the process of removing the topsoil, rock and other material overburden covering a mineral deposit in order to ex-tract the minerals.1 Strip mining is of two types contour stripping and area stripping. The method used depends upon the topography of the land.
In particular, surface mining is used to retrieve sand, gravel, stones, coal, iron and other metals. There are five recognized types of surface mining, each with specific variations depending on the minerals being extracted. These include strip mining, open-pit mining, mountaintop removal, dredging and highwall mining.
Aug 29, 2015 Surface mining refers to a category of mining where soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed. There are several types of surface mining, and strip mining counts as one of them. In strip mining, a thin layer of material known as an overburden is removed so that access is made to the minerals buried underneath.
strip mining . is useful and economical for extracting mineral deposits that lie close to the earths surface area strip mining is used where land is relatively flat. contour strip . mining is used on hilly or mountainous land where a series o f terraces are cut into the hill. mountaintop removal
Strip mining can be used in both flat and hilly landscapes. Strip mining in a mountainous area is called contour mining. Contour mining follows the ridges, or contours, around a hill. Surface Mining Open-Pit Mining Open-pit mining is used when coal is located deeper underground. A pit, sometimes called a borrow, is dug in an area. This pit ...
After 1977, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act SMCRA has imposed a fee on active mines in order to generate funds to reclaim abandoned mines. For current coal mines, SMCRA requires coal mining companies to restore the approximate original contour of the land surface after strip mining is concluded.